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Medical Article

Be conscious about kidney

Kidneys, the bean-shaped organs that control  many functions of human body has significant  roles in regulating blood pressure, electrolyte balance, and red blood cell productions in the body.  The malfunction of kidneys leads to accumulation of waste products, fluids, and electrolytes in the body.

Acute Renal Failure

Acute Renal Failure (ARF), a gravely endangering situation of life occurs when body fails to filter waste product  from blood. Acute Kidney Failure - also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury - develops rapidly over a few hours or few days.

Symptoms of Kidney Failure

Initially Kidney failure may cause no symptoms. There are numerous causes for Kidney failure. Inability of Kidney to remove potassium from the blood stream may lead to abnormal heart rhythms and sudden death.
Decreased urine output, fluid retention cause swellings in legs, ankles or feet, drowsiness, shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain or pressure or coma in severe cases, are the indications for kidney failure. The first step of treatment is correcting kidney abnormality.

Difference between ARF and CKD

Blood loss due to surgery, or medicine overdose or any injury to the body may subject to Acute Renal Failure( ARF), but Chronic Kidney Disease( CKD) is often the consequence of blood loss due to surgery, or diabetes affecting all functions of Kidneys.

Situations for ARF

Acute kidney failure occurs in conditions such as, blood flow to the  kidneys slow down, direct damage to Kidneys and the kidney urine drainage tubes(ureters) are blocked and wastes can't leave the body through urine.
In acute  renal failure there is a sharp increase of the serum creatinine level from baseline (i.e, an increase of at least 0.5mg/dl) and the urine output is less than 400 ml per day(oliguria), though not strictly applicable for ARF.

Treatment of Kidney Failure

Acute Kidney failure is most common in people who are hospitalized, particularly for patients in intensive care.  It causes complication in 5% of all hospital admissions. With the exclusion of relevant medical conditions, the mortality rate for ARF stands at 10%.
The diagnosis of Kidney failure is usually made by blood tests measuring BUN, creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR).  Treatment of the underlying cause of  kidney failure may return kidney function to normal. Life-long effort to control blood pressure and diabetes help to prevent chronic kidney disease and its progression to kidney failure. Ageing slows down the kidney function. Dialysis or transplant is the only available option for complete kidney failure.