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Medical Article

Peptic Ulcer

Peptic ulcer is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum. These are parts of gut where acid baths the surface.

Causes
Infection by Helicobacter pylori; It is   a gram negative bacteria, which requires a low oxygen concentration and relatively high carbon dioxide concentration for growth. H pylori weaken the protective mucous coating of the stomach and duodenum, due to the infection it allows acid to get through the sensitive lining beneath .Both acid and the bacteria irritate the lining cause a sore or ulcer.  It is believed to be transmitted orally by means of faecal matter through ingestion of contaminated food and water

Symptoms
Abdominal discomfort-Burning stomach pain which occurs several days a week, it may occur 2-3 hrs after a meal and mostly occurs in night when the stomach is empty

Weight loss, heart burn, poor appetite
Burping, bloating, nausea and vomiting

Emergency symptoms

Sharp, sudden, persistent stomach pain
Bloody or black stools

Disease associated with Helicobacter pylori

Duodenal ulcer
Cause - H.pylori
Symptoms-indigestion, abdominal pain with occasional bleeding
Treatment –Antacids or drugs such as Tagamet , Zantac ,or Pepcid
Stomach cancer

Diagnosis
Endoscopy and stomach biopsy
Stool antigen test (lab test-Hpsa test)
H –pylori antibody in blood test

Treatment
H –Pylori infections are usually treated by a combination of drugs, those kill the bacteria and drugs which   reduce stomach acid

Antibiotics like Metonidazole, Tetracycline , Clarithromycin  and amoxicillin are commonly used

Wash hands thoroughly, eat food that has been properly prepared, and drink water from a safe, clean source. These healthy practices may prevent an H-pylori infection

Acid suppressing drugs are used-Cimetidine, Famotidine,  Nizatidine, Omeprazole, Rebeprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole etc.