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Medical Article

Adenoids / Adenoidinitis

Adenoids are lymph tissue which lies in the upper respiratory tract between the nose and back of throat. Unlike tonsils they are not visible through the mouth. Adenoids along with tonsils are the first line of defence in the throat of children by helping to form ‘antibodies’ against germs.  Adenoids are usually found only in children  upto  3-5yrs of old and may shrink in the teenage years.

Adenoiditis
Adenoiditis is the inflammation of adenoid tissue by bacterial or viral infection

Causes
Adenoid tissue are infected by viruses such as Epstein Barr virus or Streptococcus bacteria

Symptoms
Difficulty in breathing due to enlargement of adenoid tissue
Nasal congestion leads to breathing through mouth which cause sore/dry throat
Snoring
Ear-ache

Complications
Middle ear infection
Glue ear
Sinus and chest infections
Vomiting  pus

Diagnosis
Examination of head and neck is done for finding enlarged adenoids and nasal discharge
Blood test if needed for verifying presence of microorganisms
X-ray of neck/throat
Sleep study to check obstructive sleep apnoea

Treatment
Treatment done on the basis of nature, type,severity and duration of infections
Antibiotics are given if necessary
Adenoidectomy in worse conditions

Adenoidectomy
Adenoidectomy is the surgical removal of adenoids .It is recommended ,if the child suffers from recurrent ear infections leading to breathing difficulty at night, an ENT surgeon usually removes tonsils and adenoids through mouth and the child bounce back to normal activities within a week

Complications and Risk
Bleeding from the site and anaesthetic reactions
Child may sound nasal while talking and some kids may require speech therapy.